Potential caveats of low copper
=Low Cu might lower immunity
"Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency impairs both innate and
acquired branches of
immunity. Specific roles of Cu in the activation and effector
host-defense cells remain largely unknown.
STUDY: Copper deficiency suppresses effector activities of
cells. - J Nutr 2000 Jun;130(6):1536-42
= Low Cu might lower immunity:
"candidacidal activity were significantly lower in neutrophils
from rats fed diets with
less than or equal to 2.7 mg Cu/kg compared to control cells."
STUDY: Copper status and function of neutrophils are reversibly
marginally and severely copper-deficient rats. - J Nutr 1990
- PMID: 2175782
= Low Cu can cause abnormal blood clotting:
"Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity dropped
significantly during low
copper intake from 3450 to 2600 U/g hemoglobin, but did not increase
copper repletion. Platelet cytochrome c oxidase activity changed
significantly (P<0.0001) from 1740 to 810 U/g protein during
depletion, then increased to 1000 U/g protein during copper
Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity responded similarly.
factor VIII activity increased significantly during copper
Effects of a diet low in copper on copper-status indicators in
postmenopausal women. - Am J Clin Nutr 1996 Mar;63(3):358-64
STUDY: Effects of a diet low in copper on copper-status indicators
postmenopausal women. Milne DB, Nielsen FH. - United States
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Center, Grand Forks
Human Nutrition Research Center, ND, USA.
- PMID: 8602593
= Low Cu can cause myelodysplastic syndrome
"These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this
[excess zinc] clinical entity, since the myelodysplastic features
are completely reversible."
STUDY: Excessive zinc ingestion. A reversible cause of sideroblastic
bone marrow depression. - Broun ER, Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R.
Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine,
46202. - PMID: 2094240
= Low Cu compromises antioxidant defense (increases oxidative
"Supplemental copper but not zinc or iron prevented the
potentiation of the H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative DNA damage caused by
2,3,2-tet. These data suggest that copper deficiency compromises
the antioxidant defense system of cells, thereby increasing their
susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage."
STUDY: Effect of copper deficiency on oxidative DNA damage in Jurkat
Pan Y, Loo G. - Free Radic Biol Med 2000 Mar 1;28(5):824-30 -
Graduate Program in Nutrition, University of North Carolina at
Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170, USA.
- PMID: 10754279
=Oxidative stress interferes with chemotherapy and apoptosis
"We find that H(2)O(2) inhibits the ability of 4 different
chemotherapy drugs (VP-16, doxorubicin, cisplatin,
and AraC) to induce apoptosis in human Burkitt lymphoma cells.
H(2)O(2) shifts the form of cell death from apoptosis to pyknosis/necrosis,
which occurs after a significant delay compared with
chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. It can also lower the degree of cell
killing by these drugs."
STUDY: Oxidative stress interferes with cancer chemotherapy:
inhibition of lymphoma cell apoptosis and phagocytosis. Shacter E,
Williams JA, Hinson RM, Senturker S, Lee YJ. Laboratory of
Immunology, Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Biologics
Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD,